Posted November 2012
Belgium - Chinese beer importer buys Belgian brewery
The deal raised a few eyebrows. Yu Xiaoning of Vandergeeten & EG
Distriselecta, the importer of AB-InBev beers into China, has
bought a controlling stake in the small brewery Brasserie
d’Ecaussinnes, the Belgian magazine Trends reported on 13
Brasserie d’Ecaussinnes has a portfolio of around 20 beers,
which equals about 4,000 hl of annual beer production. According
to other media sources, the objective is to increase
d’Ecaussinnes’ beer volumes tenfold over the next few years with
the help of exports to China.
The previous owner, Hugues Van Poucke, is going to stay in the
picture. He will continue to run the on-trade outlet on the
brewery site. Read on
– Senate disagrees with National Assembly over beer tax hike
Brewers should not cheer the Senate’s rejection of a draft law
to raise beer excise by a whopping 160 percent. In its vote last
week, the French Senate proposed a 120 percent increase instead
with a reduced rate for smaller brewers.
According to the Senate’s proposal, breweries producing more
than 200,000 hl will see the excise rate go up from EUR 2.75 to
EUR 6.05 per hl and Plato, while those brewing less than the
200,000 hl threshold will see it rise to EUR 3.25 from their
current reduced rates of EUR 1.38 per hl and Plato. The Senate’s
vote means that the National Assembly will have to review its
draft law before a final vote can be cast.
Moreover, as The Brewers of Europe point out, the 120 percent
excise hike still means a massive increase that will harm
everybody: brewers, retailers, publicans and consumers and could
lead to a loss of jobs in the industry.
There is another worry to contend with: Should France actually
increase its beer excise, it would propel the country to the top
of the excise table of major European beer producing countries,
while leaving only Germany among those which charge least in
excise. Many fear that the French example could put pressure on
the German government to do likewise.
Germany – Beer mixes: the next big thing in brewing?
Hop, hop, more hops was certainly the much talked about topic at
Brau Beviale in Nuremberg (13 to 15 November 2012), especially
after the Bavarian Brewers Association in January this year
issued a statement saying that dry hopping was not in
contradiction with the German Reinheitsgebot. Phew. You can
image how relieved German brewers were, now that this
controversial issue has been settled, hopefully, once and for
However, brewers further afield seem to have already latched on
to the next new thing, which is actually quite an old thing:
beer mixes. Global brewers, in particular, have come to realise
that they would be daft if they left the big segment of light
alcoholic beverages to competitors from the drinks industry.
After all, there are swathes of consumers out there who don’t
like beer (think of women and a whole generation of consumers
brought up to enjoy sweet fizzy drinks only) and in all
likelihood will never buy one either.
In the past two decades, brewers have tried their hands at
various non-beer products. The ill-fated alcopops and
malternatives come to mind. But few brewers had a go at
reformulating shandies, those old-time beer plus
citrus-flavoured soda, carbonated lemonade, ginger beer, ginger
ale, or cider mixes, which have been around like forever. And
even fewer were successful at it.
This could change. At Brau Beviale visitors could sample new age
shandies, which were made with beer but did not taste of beer.
Budweiser to rain on craft brewers’ parade
No doubt, big brewers face a consumer-led backlash in favour of
niche craft beers. But instead of hiding behind a napkin with
embarrassment, they have stepped up their marketing efforts to
lure consumers back to long-established brands with the help of
crafty looking brand extensions. According to U.S. sources,
global brewer AB-InBev is preparing to release a new addition to
its Budweiser line in 2013. Though called Budweiser Black Crown,
the beer will be a golden amber lager, i.e. darker in colour
than regular Budweiser, and packaged in special bow tie-shaped
cans, it transpired in early November 2012.
What’s also interesting is the upward shift in alcohol content
to 6 percent ABV for Black Crown.
The Budweiser brand is apparently not the only one in the AB-InBev
range to get a tan. It was reported that the brewer also
received label approval for four other brands at the end of
September. They include Busch Black Light Lager, Michelob Black
Bock Special Dark Lager, Beck’s Black Jewel and Rolling Rock
Black Rock Extra Dark Lager.
Although a label approval, which is a compulsory legal
requirement, does not necessarily mean that a company will
release the beer, that is usually the case.
Many observers have wondered if these dark beers could be a bid
by AB-InBev to compete more directly with the craft beer
industry and its higher-alcohol, more flavoursome beers. Well,
it certainly looks like it. This year already, AB-InBev has
launched the higher-alcohol Platinum and Lime-A-Rita under the
Bud Light label. Read on
Australia – Coopers and Lion in another public spat
Outgoing Lion CEO Rob Murray seems to be a sore loser. On 20
October 2012, in an interview with Australian media, he called
the family behind the largest Australian-owned Coopers brewery
“dysfunctional”, referring to Lion’s highly public but
ultimately unsuccessful attempt in 2005 to take the smaller
In the interview Mr Murray claims that, when Lion made its bid
for Coopers, he had been encouraged by older members of the
family but was blocked by the younger ones.
The Coopers family could not leave this allegation hanging in
the air. They retorted that, despite strenuous efforts of Lion
Nathan and its advisers, Coopers’ shareholders voted by 93.4
percent to 6.6 percent to block the bid. The defence of the
hostile bid cost Coopers brewery AUD 8 million (USD 8.3
million), but has served to strengthen it in maintaining its
independence. Read on
Diageo will become biggest shareholder in United Spirits
predicted some months ago, the Indian drinks baron Vijay Mallya
would eventually be done in by his struggling Kingfisher
Airlines. I was proven right. Strapped for cash, he was forced
to sell the biggest stake in his other business venture, United
Spirits, to drinks company Diageo on 9 November 2012 for about
USD 2 billion.
price represents a multiple of 20 times last year’s EBITDA,
which is high for deals in the sector. But India's alcoholic
beverage market is estimated at USD 6 billion and is growing at
15 percent a year, market observers say.
Whether Mr Mallya will use the proceeds from the sale to revive
his airline, which was grounded in October 2012 after disputes
with staff who had not been paid in months, remains to be seen.
Perennially bleeding red ink, Kingfisher has debts totalling
about USD 2.5 billion. It is believed that Mr Mallya and other
investors will have to put more than USD 1 billion into
Kingfisher Airlines to see it fly again.
Acquiring United Spirits will make it possible for Diageo to
meet its self-set goal of realising half of its revenues in
emerging markets years ahead of its initial 2015 target. About
40 percent of sales come from these markets now. A spokesperson
for Diageo commented that India will become Diageo’s number two
market after the United States.
United Spirits is India's major spirits company with a market
share of perhaps 55 percent and revenues of about USD 3.3
billion. It owns several popular Indian liquor brands like
McDowell’s, Bagpiper, Royal Challenge and Antiquity, most of
which are Indian Whiskeys. India is the world’s largest market
for that spirit but the whiskeys are made from molasses, not
grain. Read on
Brewers of Europe send clear message to French government
ho, that's a tough one. The Brewers of Europe, an industry body
not known for its foam-at-the mouth rhetoric, recently wondered
aloud if France is an EU member state, thus expressing its shock
over the French government's anti-industry, anti-EU ministerial
reported, France is planning a 160 percent hike in beer excise,
a move which has already received strongly worded protests from
the Belgian Brewers Association.
November 2012 the Brewers of Europe issued a statement saying
that "in the course of the French parliamentary debate on a
proposed French law to raise the tax on beer by 160 percent, the
French Minister of Budget insinuated that the measure would
principally affect foreign, multinational brewing companies,
which did not, in his eyes, merit any sort of compassion."
really hope the Minister did not mean what he said in the
Parliament", commented Pierre-Olivier Bergeron, Secretary
General of The Brewers of Europe. "If this were to be the case,
then I wonder whether the minister realised the falsity and
discriminatory character of the picture he painted."
Bergeron argued that "a substantial part of the French beer
market is held by three brewing companies that are historically,
deeply rooted in Europe and have invested locally in France,
also in French brands. Purchasing raw materials in France,
operating breweries in France and selling their beers through
French shops, cafés and ‘brasseries’, these companies are also
making a substantial contribution to the 65,000 French jobs and
EUR 2.6 billion in government annual revenues that beer creates
Venting his anger, Mr Bergeron, who is French, added: "One
wonders, on top of the provocation to the brewing sector beyond
the French borders, whether the minister should not keep in mind
that France, until further notice, is a Member State of the
Mr Bergeron had said
previously that "this 160 percent tax hike is a kick in the
teeth for a European brewing sector that has suffered greatly in
the crisis, yet fought to survive and continued to invest in
order to help play a positive role in the implementation of the
EU’s Growth Pact."
law to raise beer excise has already passed though France's
National Assembly and is now being discussed in the Senate. At
the time of writing, the Senate had not cast a vote. It is
expected for 13 November at the earliest. As we understand the
political process in France, parties represented in the Senate
can submit amendments. Furthermore, as the beer excise hike is
part of a much wider draft law to generate revenue, it could
very well happen that the whole proposal will be sent back to
the National Assembly for review.
Sadly, this being Europe, not all brewing industry bodies think
and act alike, obviously taking their cue from Europe's
quarrelsome politicians. On 31 October 2012 the British Beer &
Pub Association issued a tersely worded comment on the proposed
French excise hike: "It looks as if French beer tax will
increase from six pence per pint, to around 16 pence. It’s a
hefty increase, but it still leaves French beer duty at around
one quarter of the rate here in the UK."
did the BBPA mean? That brewers in Britain are worse off , so
continental brewers should stop being such whingepots and get on
like a Brewers' United Front in Europe is still a long way off.
Carlsberg sells less beer in Eastern Europe
or bad is a matter of perspective. On 7 November 2012 Carlsberg
reported that in the third quarter 2012 beer volumes declined 2
percent in its Eastern European unit (which is mainly Russia and
the Ukraine), compared to the same period a year ago. In the
January-through-September period the beer volume decline was
even more pronounced: - 7 percent to 34.3million hl
However, the brewer said that for the third quarter in a row,
its Russian market share improved to reach 38.9 percent. In
Russia, Carlsberg's unit Baltika is the market leader.
Obviously, other brewers (i.e. AB-InBev and Efes) must have lost
even more volume than Carlsberg in Russia this year to allow
this to happen. Read on
President Putin cracks down on tobacco but shies away from vodka
Several media reported at the end of October 2012 that Russian
President Vladimir Putin is stepping up his attempts to fight
the bad health of Russians by banning smoking in public places
and setting a minimum price on wine. Already it's illegal to
drink alcohol in public places.
Smoking and drinking kill 900,000 people a year in Russia, the
world’s second-largest market for cigarettes and alcohol,
according to official estimates. Alcohol and tobacco abuse cost
the Russian economy at least USD 104 billion a year, or 5
percent of gross domestic product, the government estimates.
government crackdown risks encouraging Russians to smoke
counterfeit cigarettes. The illicit tobacco trade may expand to
40 percent of the market from 1 percent, media sources say.
Minister Dmitry Medvedev on 16 October 2012 reportedly lashed
out against four foreign-owned tobacco companies, blaming them
for addicting millions of children and women to cigarettes.
Thirty-nine percent of Russians smoke regularly, according to
the World Health Organisation.
Incidentally, the four companies under attack control 93 percent
of the USD 19.5 billion Russian tobacco market.
Doesn't this sound all
too familiar - the Russian government railing against foreign
companies accusing them of all that ails Russian society? First
it was the brewers - all foreign-owned and controlling 80
percent of the market - who were hit by a massive hike in
excise, meant to curb alcohol consumption.
now it's the tobacco companies. Read on
AB-InBev to raise prices next year
1 February 2013, Belgium's major brewer AB-InBev will increase
the price of its beers by EUR 0.02 per glass on average, Belgian
media reported in early November 2012. Allegedly, the price hike
is due to higher input costs.
The price increase applies to the beers AB-InBev sells in
Belgium, whose main brands include Jupiler, Stella Artois,
Hoegaarden, Leffe and Belle-Vue.
and bar operators have already complained against the price
hike. They point out that in the past year alone prices for
coffee (6 percent), cola (9 percent) and water (13 percent) have
all gone up. Read on
Coca-Cola to launch Beautific "beauty drinks"
Cynics in the beverage industry may think that drinkable beauty
elixirs are to the 21st century what snake oils were to the Wild
West: an expensive fad. However, in their quest for the Next Big
Thing, global beverage companies cannot leave the booming beauty
market untapped. If there are millions of desperate women out
there who might succumb to the idea that a bottle a day will
keep the plastic surgeon away, why not serve them with a
beverage that they think will give them everlasting youth and
2007, U.S. brewer Anheuser-Busch was probably the first to
venture into this market. It signed a global licensing agreement
with Scott-Vincent Borba, one of Hollywood's favourite beauty
gurus and occasional walker of actress Demi Moore, to distribute
and promote his line of BORBA beauty waters in traditional
beverage channels. While expectations were high under the
licensing partnership, Mr Borba and Anheuser-Busch parted ways
shortly after the InBev acquisition. Apparently, the Brazilians
did not think much of the concept of beauty from the inside out.
Bahamas – Is Heineken squeezing out its
Reports are popping up in Bahamian newspapers
about a growing feud between the privately-owned Bahamian
Brewery and Beverage Company (BBB), based in Freeport on Grand
Bahama island, and its big rival Commonwealth Brewery, which is
located in Nassau on New Providence island.
Heineken holds a 75 percent stake in
Commonwealth Brewery, which the owner of BBB, a colourful local
character by the name of Jimmy Sands, has tried to use to his
advantage by giving their competitive wrangles a
Tiny islands with small consumer bases make
for “interesting” beer markets, especially in the Caribbean. The
Bahamas is one of those markets. With a population of about
300,000, most of whom live in Nassau, a city of 250,000 people,
the Bahamian economy is driven by tourism and financial
Lucky are those brewers that enjoy monopolies
on their respective islands. But even monopolists may find their
businesses hard going. Lack of scale, wobbly economies (read
declining numbers of tourists) and parallel imports (sometimes a
euphemism for plain smuggling) can cause executives sleepless
nights. Guess what happens if a local competitor appears on the
scene? More sleepless nights as those in charge desperately try
to find a quick fix to their problems.
Commonwealth Brewery started production in
the late 1980s as a joint venture between Heineken and the
Associated Bahamas Distillers and Brewers. It has 70-plus
labels, 380 members of staff, a major recycling operation, and
brands such as Heineken, Kalik, Guinness, Eclipse, and Vitamalt.
All went well until Mr Sands’ brewery BBB
went on stream in 2007 with a capacity of 40,000 hl beer per
year. Its portfolio of brands includes Sands, Sands Light,
Strong Back Stout, High Rock Lager, Bush Crack Beer and Triple B
Malt. Although Mr Sands took the highly controversial decision
at the time to base his brewery on the island of Grand Bahama,
far away from the island of New Providence, where 80 percent of
all beer consumers are based, his business took off eventually.
Admittedly, BBB’s rise in sales and volume was helped by a
generous tax break: under the current scheme, passed in the
2010-2011 budget, Commonwealth Brewery pays USD 5.0 per liquid
gallon in taxes, while BBB pays USD 2.0 per liquid gallon -
giving the latter a USD 3.0 advantage.
Mr Sands recently told the Tribune Business
publication that maintaining the tax difference was crucial to
his brewery’s survival, especially given that it incurred a USD
1.04 per case in transportation costs to get its products from
Freeport to Nassau - costs Commonwealth Brewery did not have.
Today total beer consumption in the Bahamas
is about 180,000 hl – and flat. Market observers say that Mr
Sands’ BBB has a market share of 17 percent, while imports
account for 8 percent, which gives Heineken’s Commonwealth
Brewery a market share of 75 percent.
Even in a stagnating beer market you would
have thought that this sort of split would allow both brewers to
live happily ever after. Ah, but not so on the Bahamas.
According to local media, things turned a shade more vicious
when Commonwealth Brewery had an Initial Public Offering last
year and Heineken reportedly repatriated the USD 60 million
windfall profits back to The Netherlands. What is more, prior to
the IPO, on 1 January 2011 a new dividend policy had become
effective, under which 100 percent of Commonwealth Brewery’s net
income is to be distributed as dividends to shareholders.
What are the implications of such a high
pay-out? To all appearances, a fierce turf war as Commonwealth
Brewery struggles to protect its market share from being eroded
by a smaller competitor. Read on
USA – Beck’s in the U.S. or Schlitzing your
Is AB-InBev running the risk of doing a
Schlitz with its Beck’s brand in the United States? In the early
1970s, the then number two brewer in the U.S. changed the
brewing process for its flagship Schlitz brand. The executives
and company were making money and they thought all was well but
then the brand dropped and never came back. Finally, in 1982
Schlitz surrendered to an offer by rival brewer Stroh.
Beer industry veterans know this
story only too well. That’s why they are following with interest
the recent “scandalette” around Beck’s.
In November 2011 AB-InBev decided
that all Beck’s to be sold in the U.S. – that’s several hundred
thousand hl – was to be brewed in the U.S. as of 2012.
The move was risky because U.S.
consumers like their high-end beer brands to be imported rather
than brewed locally. Both Corona Extra and Heineken, which are
the top-selling international beer brands, are imported from
Mexico and The Netherlands respectively.
Some time earlier this year Beck’s
born in the U.S. started to appear in the market at a price
equalling Heineken’s – around USD 8.50 per six-pack (that’s for
the Chicago area).
Apparently, this was not lost on the
consumers. On 25 October 2012 the magazine Newsweek ran a long
piece called “The plot to destroy America's beer” which tells
the plight of Brian Rinfret, a loyal Beck’s drinker who tried to
complain to AB-InBev against its decision to locally brew Beck’s
for the U.S. market. Here’s what Newsweek wrote:
Rinfret likes imported beer from Germany. He sometimes buys
Spaten. He enjoys an occasional Bitburger. When he was 25 years
old, he discovered Beck’s, a pilsner brewed in the city of
Bremen in accordance with the Reinheitsgebot, the German Purity
Law of 1516. It said so right on the label. After that, Rinfret
One Friday night in January, Mr Rinfret, 52,
stopped on the way home from work at his local liquor store in
Monroe, N.J., and purchased a 12-pack of Beck’s. When he got
home, he opened a bottle and to his surprise it tasted light. It
tasted weak. To him, says Newsweek, it wasn’t a German beer. It
tasted like a Budweiser with flavouring.
When he examined the label, it said that the
beer was no longer brewed in Bremen. He was also miffed to have
paid the full import price for the 12-pack.
Next, Mr Rinfret left a telephone message
with AB-InBev, but nobody got back to him. According to
Newsweek, Mr Rinfret had better luck with e-mail. An AB-InBev
employee informed him that Beck’s was now being brewed in St
Louis along with Budweiser. “But never fear, the rep told
Rinfret: AB-InBev was using the same recipe as always”, writes
As Mr Rinfret was not satisfied with the
reply, he posted a plea on Beck’s official Facebook page in
March: “Beck’s made in the U.S. not worth drinking. Bring back
German Beck’s. Please.” Others felt the same. So Mr Rinfret kept
trashing Beck’s on Facebook until, he says, AB-InBev
“unfriended” him in May - the Facebook lingo for banning someone
from its site. Afterwards Mr Rinfret could not post anything
there any longer.
But Mr Rinfret, says Newsweek, was only
temporarily silenced. He now complains on a Facebook page called
Import Beck’s from Germany.
The Newsweek article next quotes an industry
consultant, Bump Williams, who says that sales of Beck’s at U.S.
food stores were down 14 percent in the four weeks ending 9
September 2012 compared with the same period last year. “They
are getting their proverbial asses kicked,” Mr Williams was
quoted as saying. “Too many customers were turned off when the
switch was made”, he added.
I can only speculate as to what prompted AB-InBev
to transfer the brewing of Beck’s from Bremen to St Louis. Most
likely, it improves the brand’s bottom line. However, this
strategy – declining volumes yet higher profits – cannot go on
forever. No wonder, many people fear that Beck’s in the U.S.
could go the way of Schlitz, which would be a shame, really.
Reporting its third quarter 2012 results, AB-InBev
said that Beck’s global volumes grew 5.0 percent. However,
taking a nine month view, they were down 1.7 percent.
USA – Only half a victory for AB-InBev in
Illinois distributor battle
Anheuser-Busch (A-B), a subsidiary of AB-InBev,
can retain its minority ownership stake in one of Chicago's
largest beer distributors, Illinois liquor regulators ruled on
31 October 2012, allowing the brewer to have some control over
its sales. However, they said no to A-B’s plan to completely
take over the distributor City Beverage. Read on
Belgium – AB-InBev revenues up but beer
AB-InBev, the world's biggest brewer, said on
31 October 2012 that in the third quarter (July to September)
revenues rose by 9.1 percent to USD 10.3 billion, despite a
slight decrease in the global volumes of sales. Total volumes
dropped 0.3 percent, the brewer reported, after having declined
0.1 percent in the previous quarter.
The brewer’s EBITDA was also somewhat
disappointing to investors. At USD 3.98 billion it was slightly
up year-on-year, but below the analysts’ consensus of EUR 4.06
billion. Read on
Russia – To stay or to leave: that’s the
question for AB-InBev
Third quarter beer sales in Russia could
prove a mixed bag for brewers. While Heineken on 24 October 2012
reported beer volume gains in its Central & Eastern European
unit (that’s Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania,
Russia and Serbia!) by 3.6 percent on an organic basis, AB-InBev
was forced to admit on 31 October 2012 that it saw its Russian
beer volumes decline by 17 percent in the quarter.
AB-InBev is the number three brewer in Russia
with about 15 percent market share. Carlsberg is the biggest
brewer with a share of about 37 percent, followed by the Efes/SABMiller
tie-up with perhaps 16 percent. Heineken holds roughly 13
One way for AB-InBev to cut free from the
declining Russian beer market is to sell out and pocket up to
USD 4 billion. As I argued in a Brauwelt International report on
the Russian beer market in June 2012, I thought that this was a
likely move by AB-InBev.
Now an analyst has confirmed my musings.
Nomura analyst Ian Shackleton said in an interview with just-drinks.com
on 2 November 2012 that AB-InBev is “losing critical mass” in
the country. Moreover, the Russian unit was only contributing 2
percent to the brewer’s total profits.
He predicted that a sale of the unit will be
more likely in 12 to 18 months’ time to allow for some recovery
in the Russian market and a higher profitability.
Alas, neither he nor I can make any
prediction as to who might like to buy AB-InBev’s Russian
assets. Mr Shackleton added that what could stand in the way of
a sale is AB-InBev’s reluctance to sell to a rival such as
Heineken, who may be keen to acquire AB-InBev's 15 percent
market share, as it would catapult Heineken to number two spot.
The price tag Mr Shackleton attached to AB-InBev’s
Russian and Ukrainian units is about USD 4 billion, based on a
multiple of 2 x annual sales. Read on
Netherlands – Skyfall: Bond drinks Heineken
Martini, James?” “No, make mine a Heineken.” The day after James
Bond was first seen sipping a Heineken out of a bottle on the
big screen – a deal reportedly worth USD 45 million to the Dutch
brewer - Heineken said on 24 October 2012 that its third-quarter
revenue grew 7.1 percent to EUR 4.97 billion, with an organic
growth of 4 percent. Volumes were up 1.5 percent thanks to the
brewer selling more beer in the Americas, Eastern Europe and
However, in Western Europe, group beer volume
declined by 2.1 percent organically in the quarter because of
lower sales in Finland, a double digit volume decline in
Portugal due to the challenging economic environment and a
low-single digit decline in the UK, Netherlands and Spain
because of cautious consumer spending in the on-premise channel.
Still, Heineken managed to hike prices in
several markets and cost savings contributed to profits going
up. EBIT (beia), on an organic basis, increased in the
mid-single digits, the brewer said.
In the end, investors were neither shaken nor
stirred, much like most movie goers, who will have to get used
to the idea that James Bond does not just have a licence to kill
but also a licence to hawk a full drinks cabinet. In the latest
Bond film, the Bond character is seen drinking Macallan whisky,
Bollinger champagne and Heineken beer, not to forget his
South Africa – Norman Adami becomes Chairman
of South African Breweries
It’s an interesting management change. Norman
Adami, a 33-year veteran of SABMiller and currently Chairman
plus Managing Director of the brewer’s South African unit SAB,
will be promoted to the new role of Chairman, SABMiller
Beverages South Africa with effect from 7 January 2013,
SABMiller announced on 22 October 2012.
While relinquishing his duties as Managing
Director, Mr Adami, 57, in his new role will assume overall
strategic responsibility for SABMiller's beverage businesses in
South Africa, and will continue as a member of the Group
Executive Committee, SABMiller said.
To keep Mr Adami on board makes absolute
sense as South Africa is the second most important EBITA
contributor to the group’s earnings behind Latin America. During
Mr Adami’s tenure SAB has grown its share of the South African
beer market to about 90 percent.
It had dropped to 87 percent following the
loss of the Amstel licence in 2007.
2009 december ·